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Tb eNEWS - 8 - December 2013

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POLICY >> Resolutions >> CBD
CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY - Conference of the Parties (CBD-COP)

CBD, COP 3, Buenos Aires, 1996
 COP III/21 Relationship of the Convention with the Commission on Sustainable Development and Biodiversity-Related Conventions, other International Agreements, Institutions and Processes of Relevance [Global]

CBD, COP 4, Bratislava, Slovakia, 1998
 COP IV/4 Status and Trends of the Biological Diversity of Inland Water Ecosystems and Options for Conservation and Sustainable Use [Global]
 COP IV/5 Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity, Including a Programme of Work [Global]
 COP IV/15 The Relationship of the Convention on Biological Diversity with the Commission on Sustainable Development and Biodiversity-Related Conventions, Other International Agreements, Institutions and Processes of Relevance [Global]

CBD, COP 5, Nairobi, Kenya, 2000
 COP V/6 Ecosystem Approach [Global]
 COP V/23 Consideration of Options for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity in Dryland, Mediterranean, Arid, Semi-Arid, Grassland and Savannah Ecosystems [Global]

CBD, COP 6, The Hague, Netherlands 2002
 COP VI/22 Forest Biological Diversity [Global]
 COP VI/25 Country Reports

CBD, COP 7, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2004
 COP VII/4 Biological Diversity of Inland Water Ecosystems [Global]
 COP VII/5 Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity Review of the Programme of Work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity [Global]
 COP VII/12 Sustainable Use (Article 10) [Global]
 COP VII/16 Article 8 (j) and Related Provisions [Global]
 COP VII/19 Access and Benefit-Sharing as Related to Genetic Resources (Article 15) [Global]
 COP VII/27 Mountain Biological Diversity [Global] [Regional]
 COP VII/28 Protected Areas (Articles 8 (a) to (e)) [Global]
 Convention on Biological Diversity - Programme of Work Protected Areas (PoWPA), Annex to COP VII Decision 28 [Global] [Regional]

CBD, COP 8, Curitiba, Brazil, 2006
 
CBD COP VIII/1 Island Biodiversity [Global]
 CBD COP VIII/2 Biological Diversity of Dry and Sub-Humid Lands [Global]
 CBD COP VIII/15 Framework for Monitoring Implementation of the Achievement of the 2010 Target and Integration of Targets into the Thematic Programmes of Work [Global]

CBD, COP 9, Bonn, Germany, 2008
 CBD COP IX/18 Protected Areas [Global] [Regional]


 

CBD, COP 3, Buenos Aires, 1996
 COP III/21 Relationship of the Convention with the Commission on Sustainable Development and Biodiversity-Related Conventions, other International Agreements, Institutions and Processes of Relevance [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7117
 

   7. Decides:
      (b) In relation to cooperation with the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species, to request the Executive Secretary, in consultation with the Secretariat of that Convention, to evaluate how the implementation of that Convention can complement the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity through its transboundary coordinated and concerted action on a regional, continental and global scale;

 


 

CBD, COP 4, Bratislava, Slovakia, 1998
 COP IV/4 Status and Trends of the Biological Diversity of Inland Water Ecosystems and Options for Conservation and Sustainable Use [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7127

   7. Urges Parties when requesting support, for projects related to inland water ecosystems, from the Financial Mechanism that priority be given to:
      (a) Identifying inland water ecosystems in accordance with Article 7 and Annex I to the Convention, taking into account the criteria for Wetlands of International Importance as adopted under the Convention on Wetlands;
      (b) Preparing and implementing integrated watershed, catchment and river basin management plans based on an ecosystem approach including transboundary  watersheds, catchments and river basins, and those which include ecosystems identified under subparagraph (a) above;
   9. The Conference of the Parties recommends that Parties:
      (k) Transboundary cooperation: Develop and maintain effective cooperation for sustainable management of transboundary watersheds, catchments, river basins and migratory species through appropriate mechanisms such as bilateral and multilateral agreements;
   18. The transboundary nature of many inland water ecosystems should be fully taken into account in assessments, and it may be appropriate for relevant regional and international bodies to contribute to such assessments.

 

COP IV/5 Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity, Including a Programme of Work [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7128

Annex - Programme of Work on Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity

C. Programme elements
  Programme element 1. Implementation of integrated marine and coastal area management (IMCAM)

Operational objective 5.2:
To identify gaps in existing or proposed legal instruments, guidelines and procedures to counteract the introduction of and the adverse effects exerted by alien species and genotypes which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species, paying particular attention to transboundary effects; and to collect information on national and international actions to address these problems, with a view to prepare for the development of a scientifically-based global strategy for dealing with the prevention, control and eradication of those alien species which threaten marine and coastal ecosystems, habitats and species.

Activities:
      (a) To request views and information from Parties, countries and other bodies;
      (b) To analyse the information for the purpose of identifying gaps in legal instruments, guidelines and procedures;
      (c) To evaluate the information on the effectiveness of efforts to prevent the introduction of, and to control or eradicate, those alien species which may threaten ecosystems, habitats or species;
      (d) To identify means to support capacity-building in developing countries to strengthen their ability to conduct work related to alien species.

 COP IV/15 The Relationship of the Convention on Biological Diversity with the Commission on Sustainable Development and Biodiversity-Related Conventions, Other International Agreements, Institutions and Processes of Relevance [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7138

   6. Encourages the Executive Secretary to develop relationships with other processes with a view to fostering good management practices in areas such as: methods and approaches to deal with protected areas; ecosystem and bioregional approaches to protected area management and sustainable use of biological diversity; mechanisms to enhance stakeholder involvement; methods for developing systems plans and integrating biological diversity considerations into sectoral strategies and plans; and transboundary protected areas;


 

CBD, COP 5, Nairobi, Kenya, 2000
 COP V/6 Ecosystem Approach [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7148

C. Operational guidance for application of the ecosystem approach

   7. In applying the 12 principles of the ecosystem approach, the following five points are proposed as operational guidance.

   4. Carry out management actions at the scale appropriate for the issue being addressed, with decentralization to lowest level, as appropriate

   11. As noted in section A above, an ecosystem is a functioning unit that can operate at any scale, depending upon the problem or issue being addressed. This understanding should define the appropriate level for management decisions and actions. Often, this approach will imply decentralization to the level of local communities. Effective decentralization requires proper empowerment, which implies that the stakeholder both has the opportunity to assume responsibility and the capacity to carry out the appropriate action, and needs to be supported by enabling policy and legislative frameworks. Where common property resources are involved, the most appropriate scale for management decisions and actions would necessarily be large enough to encompass the effects of practices by all the relevant stakeholders. Appropriate institutions would be required for such decision-making and, where necessary, for conflict resolution. Some problems and issues may require action at still higher levels, through, for example, transboundary cooperation, or even cooperation at global levels.

 

COP V/23 Consideration of Options for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity in Dryland, Mediterranean, Arid, Semi-Arid, Grassland and Savannah Ecosystems [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7165

Annex 1 - Draft Programme of Work on Dry and Sub-Humid Lands

Activity 8. Promotion of responsible resource management, at appropriate levels, applying the ecosystem approach, through an enabling policy environment, including, inter alia:
      (d) Encouraging bilateral and subregional cooperation to address transboundary issues (such as facilitating access to transboundary rangelands), as appropriate, and in accordance with national legislation and international agreements;


 

CBD, COP 6, The Hague, Netherlands 2002
 COP VI/22 Forest Biological Diversity [Global]

http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7196

Expanded programme of work 

Noting that the elements for an expanded programme of work on forest biological diversity developed by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, as annexed to its recommendation VII/6, constitute a comprehensive set of goals, objectives and activities required for the conservation of forest biodiversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of forest genetic resources, underlining the sovereign rights and responsibilities of countries over their forests and the biodiversity within them;

National level 
   33. Encourages Parties and other Governments to develop closer collaboration for the conservation and sustainable use of transboundary forest ecosystems and populations of species;

 

COP VI/25 Country Reports
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7199 [Global], [Regional], [Site].

Annex II - Format for detailed thematic reports on protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity

…Contracting Parties are requested to submit their thematic reports on protected areas in this format to the Executive Secretary by 30 March 2003….

Assessment

Regional and international cooperation
   17. Is your country collaborating/communicating with neighbouring countries in the establishment and/or management of transboundary protected areas?
      a) no
      b) yes (please provide details)


 

CBD, COP 7, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2004
 COP VII/4 Biological Diversity of Inland Water Ecosystems [Global]

http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7741

Annex - Revised Programme of Work on Inland Water Biological Diversity

Programme element 1: Conservation, Sustainable Use and Benefit-Sharing

Goal 1.1. To integrate the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity into all relevant sectors of water-resource and river-basin management, taking into account the ecosystem approach

Objectives
      (a) Adopt integrated land and catchment/watershed/river basin management approaches that incorporate the ecosystem approach, and the conservation and sustainable use of inland water ecosystems, including transboundary catchments, watersheds and river basins.

Supporting activities
   1.1.12 The Ramsar Secretariat should be invited to bring to the attention of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity relevant guidance or approaches adopted by the Ramsar Convention for the wise use of wetlands, such as:
      (a) The Ramsar Convention guidelines for integrating wetland conservation and wise use into river basin management; and
      (b) Model approaches to transboundary watershed or river basin management that can demonstrate effective mechanisms for cooperative management.

Goal 1.2:  To establish and maintain comprehensive, adequate and representative systems of protected inland water ecosystems within the framework of integrated catchment/watershed/river‑basin management

Context and linkages
 Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity:  8 (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e)
 Strategic Plan objective(s):
 1.2, 1.5, 2.1, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4
 Related element(s) of first programme of work:
  paragraph 8 (c) (vii)
 Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

    Goal 3.3 (National inventories and assessment)
    Goal 3.6 (Further elaboration of Annex I)
 Plan of Implementation of the World Summit:  paragraph 32 (c)

Objective
      (b) Where appropriate, transboundary, collaborative approaches to identifying, recognizing and managing protected inland water ecosystems are undertaken between neighbouring Parties.

Activities of the Parties
   1.2.5. As appropriate, work collaboratively with neighbouring Parties to identify, have formally recognized and managed, transboundary protected inland water ecosystems.

Supporting activities of the Executive Secretary
   1.2.7. Review and disseminate relevant information and guidance, including through the clearing-house mechanism, on national and transboundary experiences and case-studies to assist efforts in establishing and maintaining protected inland water ecosystems considering, inter alia:
      (a) The range of resource materials and guidance available through the IUCN Commission on Protected Areas;
      (b)  The Ramsar Convention strategic framework for the future development of the List of Wetlands of International Importance, and its specific guidance in relation to the identification and designation of certain inland water ecosystem types such as karsts and subterranean hydrological systems, peatland, wet grasslands, etc;
      (c)  The new Ramsar guidelines on management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands, adopted by the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention at its eighth meeting; and
      (d)  Advice and guidance available from the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere programme, International Hydrological Programme (IHP) and World Heritage Centre.

Goal 1.4:  To prevent the introduction of invasive alien species, including exotic stocks that potentially threaten the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems, and to control and, where possible, eradicate established invasive species in these ecosystems

Context and linkages
 Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity:
 7 (c), 8 (h), 8 (l) and 14 (a)
 Strategic Plan objective(s):
 1.2, 1.5, 2.1, 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.3 and 4.4
 Related element(s) of first programme of work:
 paragraphs 8(c)(vi) and 9(h)
 Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

    Goal 2.1 (Integration with other sectors)
    Goal 2.4 (Communication, education and public awareness)
    Goals 3.2 and 3.3 (Assessments)

Objective
Through national biodiversity strategies and action plans and other relevant national and regional policies, programmes and plans undertake appropriate actions to prevent invasive alien species, which threaten the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems, from spreading and either control or eradicate them where invasion has already taken place.

Activities of the Parties
   1.4.4. Within the context of transboundary catchments, watershed and river-basin management, and especially in relation to inter-basin water transfers, provide appropriate mechanisms to prevent the spread of invasive alien species.

Programme element 3: Knowledge, Assessment and Monitoring

Goal 3.1: To develop an improved understanding of the biodiversity found in inland water ecosystems, how these systems function, their ecosystem goods and services and the values they can provide

Context and linkages
 Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity
: 5, 7, 12, 14, 17, 18
 Strategic Plan objectives
:  1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.5, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4
 Related element(s) of first programme of work
: paragraphs 1, 8 (a), 9 (d), 13, 15 (b), 16, 18 and 21
 Intra and inter-programmatic linkages
:
   Goal 1.1 relates to implementation of the ecosystem approach
   Goal 2.4 (Communication, education and public awareness) is relevant also.
 This goal also has links with all other goals under programme element 3.
 Plan of Implementation of the World
 Summit:  paragraph 40 (c)

Objectives
      (a) Develop an improved picture of the status and trends of the biological diversity of inland waters, its uses, taxonomy and threats and ensure adequate dissemination of this information.
      (b) Establish, maintain and further develop expertise in inland water biological diversity and ecosystems. 

Activities of the Parties
   3.1.1.    Encourage, and where possible support, applied research to gain an improved understanding of the status, trends, taxonomy and uses of biological diversity in inland water ecosystems, including transboundary systems where applicable.

Goal 3.2:  To develop, based on inventories, rapid and other assessments applied at the regional, national and local levels, an improved understanding of threats to inland water ecosystems and responses of different types of inland water ecosystems to these threats

Context and linkages
 Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity:7 (a), (c) and (d)
 Strategic Plan objectives:
  2.1, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4
 Related element(s) of first programme of work:
  paragraphs 6, 7, 8 (b), 9 (e) (i)-(iv) and 9 (m) (v), 12, 19 and 20
 Intra-/ and inter-programmatic linkages:

    Goal 1.2 (Integrating biodiversity conservation into water management)
    Goal 1.3 (In situ conservation through protected areas)
    Goals 3.3 and 3.4.
 Plan of Implementation of the World
 Summit:  paragraph 66 (c)

Objectives
      (a) Assessments and inventories of inland water biodiversity undertaken, including the urgent identification of stressed inland water ecosystems and those mentioned in Annex I of the Convention.
      (b) Rapid assessments, using suitable indicators, being undertaken for inland water biodiversity, in particular in small island developing States and States where inland water ecosystems suffer from ecological disasters and urgent provision of support to develop and implement national strategies for the prevention and mitigation of ecological disasters in inland water ecosystem types.
      (c) Build national capacity for undertaking the above-mentioned assessments through appropriate mechanisms.
See also goal 3.3 in relation to environmental, cultural and social impact assessments.

Activities of the Parties
   3.2.1 In accordance with the priorities set down in national biodiversity strategies and action plans, undertake comprehensive national inventories and assessments of inland water biological diversity, which may be regarded as important in accordance with the terms of Annex I of the Convention.  Furthermore, undertake assessments of threatened habitats and species, and conduct inventories and impact assessments of alien species in inland water ecosystems using the guidelines adopted by the Conference of the Parties in decision VI/7 A.  The transboundary nature of many inland water ecosystems should be fully taken into account in assessments, and it may be appropriate for relevant regional and international bodies to contribute to such assessments.

Supporting activities
   3.2.12 Through continued collaboration with global and regional assessments including, but not restricted to, the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA), the World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the FAO Fisheries Assessment, the Global Environmental Outlook (GEO), the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the report on State of the World's Plant and Animal Resources and the IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Assessment and Red List of Threatened Species, seek to advance the generation of information on status and trends that can assist and support global, transboundary and national priority setting processes for the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biodiversity. 

Goal 3.3.  To ensure projects and actions with the potential to impact negatively on the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems are subjected, in accordance with national legislation and where appropriate, to suitably rigorous impact assessments, including consideration of their potential impact on sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities

Context and linkages
 Article(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 
 14
 Strategic Plan objectives:
  2.1, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4
 Related element(s) of first programme of work:
   paragraphs 9 (e) (ii), 18, and 20
 Intra and inter-programmatic linkages:

    Goal 2.1 Strategic environmental assessments are a core part of integrating biodiversity conservation considerations into national institutions and programmes
    This element of the inland waters programme of work is a further elaboration for the cross-cutting work on impact assessment being pursued by the Convention.
 Plan of Implementation of the World
 Summit:  paragraph 37

Objectives
      (a)    Undertake environmental impact assessments, in accordance with national legislation and where appropriate, for all projects with the potential to impact on the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems, ensuring that these take into account the "inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse".  [10]/
      (b)    Conduct cultural, environmental, and socio-economic impact assessments, in accordance with national legislation and where appropriate, regarding developments proposed to take place on, or which are likely to impact on, sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities, in accordance with section VII/16 (Akwé: Kon Voluntary Guidelines for the Conduct of Cultural, environmental and Social Impact Assessment Regarding Developments Proposed to Take place on, or which are Likely to Impact on, Sacred Sites and on Lands and Waters Traditionally Occupied or Used by Indigenous and Local Communities). 

Activities of the Parties:
 3.3.3. For transboundary inland water ecosystems, undertake, where feasible and appropriate and by agreement between the Parties concerned, collaborative impact and environmental flow assessments when applying the Convention's guidelines for incorporating biodiversity related issues into environmental impact assessment legislation and/or processes and in strategic environmental assessment.

 

COP VII/5 Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity Review of the Programme of Work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7742

Monitoring progress toward the global goal

 Mariculture
51.  Expresses its support for regional and international collaboration to address transboundary impacts of mariculture on biodiversity, such as spread of disease and invasive alien species;

Programme Element 4: Mariculture

 Goal: To prevent or minimize the negative impacts of mariculture on marine and coastal biodiversity and to enhance any positive effects of mariculture using native species.
 Operational objective 4.1:  To promote use of techniques, which minimize adverse impact of mariculture on marine and coastal biological diversity.
      (e)  To undertake regional and international collaboration to address transboundary impacts of mariculture on biodiversity, such as the spread of disease and invasive alien species.

Annex II - Guidance for the Development of a National Marine and Coastal Biodiversity Management Framework [33]
 5. Good governance will depend on having one or more bodies, each with the authority and capacity to undertake their responsibilities. When there is more than one body, including, in the case of transboundary areas, bodies in different countries, mechanisms for coordinating and integrating management will be vital.

Annex III - Improvement of Available Data for Assessment of Progress towards the Global Goal
  2. The Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group examined available information, consulted UNEP-WCMC (and indirectly WWF-International), and concluded that global data on marine and coastal protected areas should be improved and/or gathered in the following critical categories:
      (a)  Location (physical coordinates and country or political unit, including the names of neighbouring country/countries where the marine and coastal protected areas is transboundary);
      (b)  Total size of the protected area, the relative size of the marine and coastal component and, where transboundary, the total area under country jurisdiction;

 

COP VII/12 Sustainable Use (Article 10) [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7749

The Conference of the Parties,
6. Invites Parties and Governments, in collaboration with other relevant international organizations and agreements, indigenous and local communities and stakeholders to undertake further research including, through, inter alia, the compilation and analysis of case-studies and existing literature on sustainable use consistent with practical principle 6:
      (f)  The applicability of the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines on the use of components of biological diversity in a transboundary context, (e.g., a resource shared between different countries, or migratory species moving across national jurisdictions);

Annex II – Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity
 Practical principle 7: The spatial and temporal scale of management should be compatible with the ecological and socio-economic scales of the use and its impact.  [51]
 Rationale: Management of sustainable use activities should be scaled to the ecological and socio-economic needs of the use.  If, for example, fish are harvested from a lake, the owner of the lake should be in charge of, and accountable for, the management of the lake subject to national or, as appropriate, subnational policy and legislation
Operational guidelines
      §  Link responsibility and accountability to the spatial and temporal scale of use;
      §  Define the management objectives for the resource being used;
      §  Enable full public participation in preparation of management plans to best ensure ecological and socio-economic sustainability.
      §  In case of transboundary resources, it is advisable that appropriate representation from those states participate in the management and decisions about the resources.

 Practical principle 8: There should be arrangements for international cooperation where multinational decision-making and coordination are needed.
 Rationale:   If a biodiversity resource is transboundary between two or more countries then it is advisable to have a bilateral or multilateral agreement between those states to determine how the resource will be used and in what amounts. Absence of such agreements can lead to each state implementing separate management regimes which, when taken together, may mean that the resource is over-utilized.

Operational guidelines
      §  Make arrangements for international cooperation when the distribution of populations or communities/habitats being used span two or more nations;
      §  Promote multinational technical committees to prepare recommendations for the sustainable use of transboundary resources;
      §  Have bilateral or multilateral agreements between or among the States for the sustainable use of transboundary resources;
      §  Establish mechanisms involving the collaborating states to ensure that sustainable use of transboundary resources does not negatively impact the ecosystem capacity and resilience.

COP VII/16 Article 8 (j) and Related Provisions [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7753

 H.  Development of elements of sui generis systems for the protection of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices

The Conference of the Parties
 Recognizing
 the transboundary distribution of some biological and genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge,
   1. Requests the Executive Secretary to continue gathering and analysing information on the issues set out in paragraphs 34 (b) to (e) of decision VI/10 and disseminate this information through the clearing house mechanism;
   2. Invites Parties, Governments, indigenous and local communities, and relevant international organizations to communicate to the Executive Secretary any relevant information on existing indigenous, local, national and regional sui generis systems for the protection of the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and any relevant information on innovative policy, administrative and legislative measures that are supportive of customary law and practices;
   3. Requests the Executive Secretary to compile information on issues identified in paragraph 2 above, and on the nature of customary laws and traditional protocols of indigenous and local communities relating to customary uses and the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, in cooperation with indigenous and local communities, for consideration by the Ad Hoc Open-ended Inter-Sessional Working Group on Article 8(j) and Related Provisions of the Convention;
   4. Requests the Executive Secretary, based on submissions by Parties, Governments, indigenous and local communities and relevant international organizations, to develop, in cooperation with the ongoing work on the use of terms in the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Access and Benefit-Sharing and in consultation with Parties, indigenous and local communities and relevant international organizations, a glossary of terms relevant to Article 8(j) and related provisions for the consideration by the fourth meeting of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Inter-Sessional Working Group on Article 8(j) and Related Provisions of the Convention;
   5. Decides on appropriate mechanisms for better cooperation between the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Access and Benefit-Sharing and the Ad Hoc Open-ended Inter-Sessional Working Group on Article 8(j) and Related Provisions of the Convention in order to ensure the participation and involvement of indigenous and local communities in the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Access and Benefit-Sharing;
   6. Requests the Ad Hoc Open-ended Inter-Sessional Working Group on Article 8(j) and Related Provisions of the Convention, with the collaboration of relevant international organizations and bodies such as the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues to:
      (a)  Consider non-intellectual-property-based sui generis forms of protection of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity;
      (b)  Further develop, as a priority issue,  elements for sui generis systems, listed in the annex to the present decision, for protection of knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and ensure benefit-sharing arrangements for these communities when their traditional knowledge and associated genetic resources are accessed;
      (c)  Review the relevance and applicability of the Bonn Guidelines to the Ad Hoc Open-ended Inter-Sessional Working Group on Article 8(j) and Related Provisions of the Convention in accordance with decision VI/24 A of the Conference of the Parties;
      (d) Review and, if appropriate, make recommendations regarding the international regime on access and benefit-sharing with a view to including sui generis systems and measures for the protection of knowledge, innovations, and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity;
      (e) Assess the role of databases and registers in the protection of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity;
      (f) Explore, taking into account the work of the World Intellectual Property Organization and the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, the potential of and conditions under which the use of existing as well as new forms of intellectual property rights can contribute to achieving the objectives of Article 8(j) and related provisions of the Convention;
   7. Invites Parties and Governments to consider appropriate measures, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, to implement at local, national, subregional, regional and international levels sui generis systems and other new innovative mechanisms that ensure the protection of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices taking into consideration customary law and traditional practices;
   8. Requests the Executive Secretary, with the cooperation of Parties, indigenous and local communities and relevant international organizations, to collect information on the role of databases and registers in the protection of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity;
    9. Invites Parties, Governments and international organizations to strengthen the capacity of indigenous and local communities to protect, use, preserve, maintain and promote their traditional knowledge, innovations and practices relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity;
   10.  Invites both Parties and indigenous and local communities to share national experiences amongst themselves on local and national approaches, as well as international approaches, for the protection of traditional knowledge and to consider the harmonization of approaches at the regional level;
   11.  Invites the World Intellectual Property Organization to make available to the Ad Hoc Open-ended Inter-Sessional Working Group on Article 8(j) and Related Provisions of the Convention, the results of its work on issues relevant to the implementation of Article 8(j) and related provisions of the Convention, in particular in relation to the protection of traditional knowledge and its recognition as prior art.

 

COP VII/19 Access and Benefit-Sharing as Related to Genetic Resources (Article 15) [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7756

Annex - Terms of Reference for the Ad Hoc Open-Ended Working Group on Access and Benefit-Sharing 
      (d)  Elements:  The following elements shall be considered by the Ad Hoc Open‑ended Working Group on Access and Benefit-sharing for inclusion in the international regime, inter alia:
        (viii)  Measures to facilitate the functioning of the regime at the local, national, subregional, regional and international levels, bearing in mind the transboundary nature of the distribution of some in situ genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge;

 

COP VII/27 Mountain Biological Diversity [Global] [Regional]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7764

C. Programme elements, goals and actions
Goal 2.3. To establish regional and transboundary collaboration and the establishment of cooperative agreements

Actions
 2.3.1.  Promote integrated transboundary cooperation, strategies for sustainable activities on mountain ranges through mutually agreed-upon arrangements by countries concerned. Cooperative arrangements should cover specific thematic issues such as landscape, soil, wetland, watershed, rangeland, mining, protected areas and wildlife management, agriculture, pastoralism, forestry, transportation, energy and tourism.
 2.3.2. Promote and strengthen regional and transboundary cooperation for research, adaptive management, fair and appropriate allocation of water to ecosystems, and exchange of expertise to improve the conservation and management of mountain biodiversity (e.g., Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment (GMBA) and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)).

 

COP VII/28 Protected Areas (Articles 8 (a) to (e)) [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7765

The Conference of the Parties
 8. The Convention's work on protected areas takes into account the ecosystem approach. The ecosystem approach is the primary framework for action under the Convention, and its application will help reach a balance between the three objectives of the Convention. Multiple-use protected areas applied in an ecosystem approach context can, for example, help meet specific goals relating to conservation, sustainable use and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. The ecosystem approach provides a framework within which the relationship of protected areas to the wider landscape and seascape can be understood, and the goods and services flowing from protected areas can be valued. In addition, the establishment and management of protected area systems in the context of the ecosystem approach should not simply be considered in national terms, but where the relevant ecosystem extends beyond national boundaries, in ecosystem or bioregional terms as well. This presents a strong argument for and adds complexity to the establishment of transboundary protected areas and protected areas in marine areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Any work under this programme on marine and coastal protected areas should be consistent with decision VII/5 on Marine and Coastal biodiversity.

 

Convention on Biological Diversity - Programme of Work Protected Areas (PoWPA), Annex to COP VII Decision 28 [Global] [Regional]
http://www.cbd.int/programmes/pa/pow-goals-alone.pdf

Goal 1.1: To Establish and Strengthen National and Regional Systems of Protected Areas Integrated into a Global Network as a Contribution to Globally Agreed Goals

Suggested Activities of the Parties:
 1.1.3     As a matter of urgency, by 2006 terrestrially and by 2008 in the marine environment, take action to address the under-representation of marine and inland water ecosystems in existing national and regional systems of protected areas, taking into account marine ecosystems beyond areas of national jurisdiction in accordance with applicable international law, and transboundary inland water ecosystems.
Goal 1.3:
To Establish and Strengthen Regional Networks, Transboundary Protected Areas (TBPAs) and Collaboration Between Neighbouring Protected Areas Across National Boundaries

 Target: Establish and strengthen by 2010/20125 / transboundary protected areas, other forms of collaboration between neighbouring protected areas across national boundaries and regional networks, to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, implementing the ecosystem approach, and improving international cooperation.

Suggested activities of the Parties
 1.3.1     Collaborate with other parties and relevant partners to establish effective regional networks of protected areas, particularly in areas identified as common conservation priorities (e.g. barrier reef systems, large scale river basins, mountain systems, large remaining forest areas and critical habitat for endangered species), and establish multi-country coordination mechanisms as appropriate to support the establishment and effective long term management of such networks.
 1.3.2     Collaborate with other Parties and relevant partners through the United Nations Informal Consultative Process on the Law of the Sea (UNICPOLOS) to establish and manage protected areas in marine areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, in accordance with international law, including the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, and based on scientific information.
 1.3.3     Establish, where appropriate, new TBPAs with adjacent Parties and countries and strengthen effective collaborative management of existing TBPAs.
 1.3.4 Promote collaboration between protected areas across national boundaries.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary
 1.3.5     Collaborate and consult with relevant organizations and bodies for developing guidelines for establishing transboundary protected areas and collaborative management approaches, as appropriate, for dissemination to Parties.         
 1.3.6     Compile and disseminate information on regional networks of protected areas and transboundary protected areas, including, as far as possible, their geographical distribution, their historical background, their role and the partners involved.
 1.3.7     Review the potential for regional cooperation under the Convention on Migratory Species with a view to linking of protected area networks across international boundaries and potentially beyond national jurisdiction through the establishment of migratory corridors for key species.

Goal 3.1: To Provide an Enabling Policy, Institutional and Socio-economic Environment for Protected Areas

Suggested activities of the Parties
 3.1.11   Cooperate with neighbouring countries to establish an enabling environment for transboundary protected areas and for neighbouring protected areas across national boundaries and other similar approaches including regional networks.

Goal 4.2: To Evaluate and Improve the Effectiveness of Protected Areas Management

Target: By 2010, frameworks for monitoring, evaluating and reporting protected areas management effectiveness at sites, national and regional systems, and transboundary protected area levels adopted and implemented by Parties.


 

CBD, COP 8, Curitiba, Brazil, 2006
 CBD COP VIII/1 Island Biodiversity [Global]

http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=11013

Appendix - List of Suggested Supporting Actions for Parties
 This appendix provides a list of suggested supporting actions for the Parties, and is intended to be a menu of actions from which Parties may choose when implementing this programme of work.

Priority action 1.2.1
 1.2.1.8. Encourage the establishment of transboundary marine protected areas where appropriate, consistent with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

 

 CBD COP VIII/2 Biological Diversity of Dry and Sub-Humid Lands [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=11014

The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity,

 11. Requests the Executive Secretary:
      (a) In collaboration with relevant organizations and conventions, in particular the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, and Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA), and taking into account the findings and lessons learned from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and experiences in transboundary and community based natural resource management, to present proposals for consideration by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice during the preparation of the next in-depth review of the implementation of the programme of work on the biological diversity of dry and sub-humid lands on:
        (iii) Land-use options that promote biodiversity and generate income for indigenous and local communities, particularly options for transboundary and community based natural resource management;

CBD COP VIII/15 Framework for Monitoring Implementation of the Achievement of the 2010 Target and Integration of Targets into the Thematic Programmes of Work [Global]
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=11029

Annex IV - Application of the Provisional Framework of Goals and Targets for 2010 to the Thematic Programmes of Work of the Convention

Provisional goals and targets as per the framework

Marine and coastal biodiversity

Inland waters biodiversity

Forest biodiversity

Mountain biodiversity

Dry and sub-humid lands biodiversity

Island biodiversity 1/

Focal area 1: Protect the components of biodiversity

Goal 1. Promote the conservation of the biological diversity of ecosystems, habitats and biomes

Target 1.2: Areas of particular importance to biodiversity protected.

Particularly vulnerable marine and coastal habitats and ecosystems, such as tropical and cold water coral reefs, seamounts, hydrothermal vents mangroves, seagrasses, spawning grounds and other vulnerable areas in marine habitats effectively protected.

275 million hectares of wetlands of particular importance to biodiversity protected, including representation and equitable distribution of areas of different wetland types across the range of biogeographic zones.

Areas of particular importance to forest biodiversity protected in the most threatened and vulnerable forest ecosystems through comprehensive, effectively managed and ecologically representative national and regional protected area networks.

Areas of particular importance to mountain biodiversity protected through comprehensive, effectively managed and ecologically representative national and regional protected area networks.

Areas of particular importance to dry and sub-humid lands biodiversity are protected through comprehensive, effectively managed and ecologically representative national and regional protected area networks.

Areas of particular importance to island biodiversity are protected through comprehensive, effectively managed and ecologically representative national and regional protected area networks.

Goal 2. Promote the conservation of species diversity

Target 2.2: Status of threatened species improved.

Known globally threatened and endangered marine and coastal species, with particular attention to migratory and transboundary species and populations, effectively conserved.

The world’s known threatened inland water ecosystem dependent species of plants and animals conserved, with particular attention to migratory, transboundary and endemic species and populations.

Conservation status of threatened forest species substantially improved.

Status of threatened mountain species substantially improved.

Status of threatened dry and sub-humid lands species substantially improved.

Status of threatened island species significantly improved.

 

CBD, COP 9, Bonn, Germany, 2008 CBD
COP IX/18 Protected Areas [Global] [Regional]

http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=11661

A. Review of implementation of the programme of work on protected areas

   6. Invites Parties to:
      (f) Support the establishment or strengthening of regional or subregional forums that contribute to the effective implementation of the programme of work on protected areas at the regional and subregional level inter alia for undertaking cooperation in the establishment, in accordance with national legislation, of transboundary protected areas and as appropriate ecological networks*, in both terrestrial and marine environments; exchanging regional lessons on implementation of the programme of work on protected areas; coordinating the implementation of regional capacity-building plans; establishing regional networks of marine- and terrestrial-protected area specialists for various thematic areas of the programme of work on protected areas; and convening regional donor roundtables in collaboration with various donors and multilateral agencies;


 

Convention on Biological Diversity - Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA)

CBD, SBSTTA 3, Montreal, Canada, 1997

SBSTTAIII/1 [Global] Agenda Item 3: The Main Ecosystem Topic: Assessment of the Status and Trends of the Biological Diversity of Inland Water Ecosystems and Identification of Options for Conservation and Sustainable Use

A. Recommendation concerning agenda item 3

   III. Recommendations to Parties

   SBSTTA further recommends to the Conference of the Parties that Parties:

   Transboundary Cooperation
   - Develop effective cooperation for sustainable management of transboundary watersheds and migratory species including watershed planning commissions;

Agenda Item 7.2: Review of Methodologies for Assessment of Biological Diversity (As Pertaining To Inland Water Ecosystems)

C. Recommendation concerning agenda item 7.2

   The SBSTTA

   Recognizing the importance of the clearing-house mechanism in the dissemination of methodologies for assessment of biological diversity:

   5. Recommends to the Conference of the Parties that the transboundary nature of many inland water ecosystems be fully taken into account in assessments, and notes that it may be appropriate for relevant regional and international bodies to contribute to such assessments.